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Category Archives: Business Products & Services

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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Lessons Learned from Years with Companies

Four Prime Office Alternatives you Need to Consider

Many businesses are altering their perception of office rooms. While some business are more concerned about their workplace flexibility, the ever increasing rise in cost of real estate is one issue that seems to be nagging many businesses. With these concerns, nothing should be taken lightly and all options ought to be considered. Listed here are some of the best options to the traditional offices you’ll ever get.

Office trailers

Undoubtedly, this is one of the least conventional standard office space alternatives but one whose importance shouldn’t be overlooked all together. As most businesses startup, though not with lots of money, the primary focus is always on mobility. Office trailers have become common these days because they enable organizations move quickly around and more importantly manage their affairs privately as compared to shared office rooms. Depending with your company funds you should possibly rent or opt for office trailers for sale.

Remote office arrangements

When trying to find an office room the main issue you should think about is, does your company really need a workplace? With the recent influx of doing business, most companies’ owners are so much worried about obtaining an office that they neglect to access the relevance of one. The truth of the matter is that not all businesses need an office space. Acknowledging this fact early enough can help you grasp the concept of teleworking thus assisting you save a great deal of money for your business.

Sharing office spaces

These would be the most common alternatives when it comes to office spaces. Usually, co-working spaces are open spaces that are shared with different businesses and freelancers at a fee either in the form of weekly or monthly premiums. Inasmuch as these rooms help you reduce your charges of hiring an office, they have a few limitation, top on the list being lack of privacy.

Small enterprises incubators

In case you want an office space but you are not comfortable with the idea of office trailers for sale because of their design or co-working spaces due to their lack of privacy, worry not, there is still a solution for you through small business incubators. Business incubators are fundamentally found everywhere in the globe. Through business incubation, you’ll be able to enroll to a program that sees your organization enjoy free mentorship and free working areas at a little cost. Though it might be restrictive, to smaller businesses and startups this option is very rewarding.

Office space is one of the crucial aspect of a business. However, with the skyrocketing expenses of commercial real estate properties a great deal is left to be desired. With all the above alternatives from office trailers for sale to enterprise incubators, pick your best workplace substitute and see your company grow in leaps and bounds.

What I Can Teach You About Companies

Tips for Effective Construction Project Management

You might have really been in the building business for a brief time or many years, and you know how to handle construction projects fairly easily. That said, even the best construction contractors have to be reminded about the most effective practices of running jobs efficiently once in a while. Below we will discuss some tips on how you can efficiently manage construction projects to ensure that you get more clients and maintain a good reputation.

When you take up any construction project, it is prudent to have a consultation meeting with your client to discuss some pertinent issues. You need to know what their expectations are and what the construction project will entail. Based on this first meeting, you and then decide how many employees you will allocate the project, the total cost of materials and the time that it will take you to complete the project. If you do not plan well, the project may go poorly, and it may end up being more costly than you anticipated. The fantastic thing is there are ways to utilize to improve your project management to ensure this job will run smoothly. You can ascertain that you will optimize your profit from the projects which you undertake, when you adopt these practices.

In case you are bidding for a project, you have to ensure that you do it well so as to secure the job. Nonetheless, cost estimates that are not cost efficient could lead to costly adjustments when the project is at an advanced stage, and your company might spend a lot more than you’d budgeted. Appropriate cost estimate includes understanding how much time and materials the project will take. You will also have to be aware of the other variables that could impact the job. You should also secure all the necessary permits to undertake the project. You should also check if you have enough employees to complete the project in time.

You have to manage the amount of time that each and every worker spends on tasks. This will help you to make an improved estimate of how much time particular tasks are done for the jobs you could have in the long run. It also allow you to avoid paying too much on overtime.

There are several variables that’ll determine how everything will go in a specific project. The common example is the weather. Nevertheless, apart from this, there may be sudden challenges and risks which could delay the job. These may comprise an underperforming subcontractor, equipment breaking down, employees getting sick and materials being stolen or misplaced. You should have a plan in place to handle whatever may come up in relation to the delays and minimize the cost of the project though it is hard to prevent a few of these setbacks.

Finding Ways To Keep Up With Construction

All About Improving Your Next Construction Project

This article can be very helpful to all companies or professionals out there who are preparing for their next construction project. There is no doubt about it, working in the construction sector means that you have to face new jobs with different difficulties and challenges all the time. If you own a construction business and you have been doing it for many years now, then you must be already aware that there are no two construction projects that are the same. It is very important that you consider some few things first or ponder on some few points first before you start your next construction project.

You need to make sure that you are adaptable to the task at hand and that you are always willing to learn new things. It is also recommended that you spend some time doing an online research and find out more information on what you should do before you begin your construction project. With the help of the Internet, you will surely be able to find a lot of useful blogs or articles found on the web that provides excellent tips and tricks on how to improve your next construction project. If you can, it is also wise that you ask for some pieces of advice from other construction business owners. There are also a lot of websites out there that offers different kinds of top quality construction equipment.

One of the most important factors that you should consider when preparing for your next construction project is to create a capable and strong team. What will you do with your heavy equipment if you don’t have an excellent team. You will surely not be able to get the job done to the highest standard if you fail to assemble a strong team. A best team is required if you want your clients to be satisfied.

After you assemble an excellent team, you also need to make sure that you have the right machinery, vehicles, and equipment. Construction trailers are one of the most important mobile structures that you must have. It is very crucial that you have with you the most reliable construction trailers out there. If you search online, you will discover that there are many companies today that sell construction trailers and there are those that allows you to rent them. Regardless whether you are buying or renting the construction trailer, you need to make sure that you choose the one that is reliable and is made out of excellent quality materials. Before you buy or rent a particular construction trailer, it is very important that you take the time to check it’s durability, as well as its reliability.

Finding Ways To Keep Up With Technology

Why Is There A Need For A CMS

It is a quality website that every company will be needing for them to be able to spread information effectively regarding the products or services that they have. And that is why it is important that you will have a quality website. And it is also important that you will know the different factors that that can be key for a website to have a quality.

It is the factors like quick website loading, appealing design, comfortable navigation that can attract visitors to your website. Making these visitors into clients and making them come back for more is basically the challenge. You will be able to do these things by making sure that you will have quality contents and regular updates on your website. But for a business owner, these things can pose a problem. A technical and programming skills and know how is what is needed for you to be able to maintain your website.

It is in the market today that you will be able to find a number of different companies that will be able to provide the services that you need. The costs if these services can be a bit high which is something that most small business owners will not be able to afford.

It is the content management system or the CMS that is considered as a solution for this segment of the market. An application that has web-based tools, web database, and templates are what the CMS has to offer so that you will be able to manage the content of your website. That is why if you have a website that needs constant updates and additions, then using a CMS can be very helpful for you. Image management and text editing is what a CMS will enable you to do plus it is also very user-friendly. It is in web programming that you will learn the technical things and will be very handy in managing a website but with the help of a CMS, even without these technicalities, you will still be able to do just that. Right there and then, the needed modifications and updates that your website needs can be done by you. All you need is a computer and an internet to do it.

When you are looking for a CMS package, then you will find a number of them on the market today. You can have the option to choose the ones that are for free or some that commercial. It is the commercial though that will give you a warranty and a full technical support. When you want to have a safe way, then you must opt for the commercial type of CMS. If expanding your business is one plan that you have, then having a CMS that will also be able to expand with you is the one that you should select.

Lessons Learned from Years with Options

Choosing the Best Franchise Worth Your Investment The right franchise opportunity available can yield several benefits to everyone. Franchises is like other business opportunities that come with risks. You have to have the right motivation to stand against the challenges. In this article, some tips will be provided so you can carefully analyze which one is the best option for you. 1. It is very essential to first determine if franchising is what’s best for you. Having a franchise can be quite different from running your own business or working for an employer. You have to take note that this business situation has its own advantages and disadvantages. Before entering in this, you have to know what it means. You will never learn about franchising if you don’t spend time making a research. This is where you are going to discover if you are equipped with the skills and knowledge before entering into a certain franchise opportunity. 2. If you have determined that this is the right option, then start scrutinizing the many options available. It can be very overwhelming when you find out that there are almost hundreds of opportunities for you. And, there are different industries to choose from. The one you should choose is the franchise that you want to work in for a long time. Determine your personal preference as well as your experience in choosing.
A Quick Overlook of Franchises – Your Cheatsheet
3. In choosing a franchise opportunity, keeping your goals in mind is very essential. Take note that different owners may vary when it comes to their franchise goals. There are some who want the business for their lifestyle goals. Some may want this because they can be their own boss when it comes to the work schedule. Others may not have the same goal as this. Knowing what you need and want can help you a lot in determining which franchise opportunity can be more beneficial for you. Again, you have to make your own research here. This is sure that best way to check which business suits you the best.
The Key Elements of Great Franchises
4. You have to know whether or not the franchise opportunity is strong and firm. Since you will be investing money here, you have to make a comprehensive research. Know the business plan of the franchise opportunity and search about other franchise owners in your area. This is a good idea in order to know if it is good for you. Knowing that the franchise is strong gives you a peace of mind and ensures success. 5. The last thing to consider is the legality of the franchise. Always bear in mind the agreements made with the franchising company and be responsible to follow them. It is your legal responsibility to sign and follow the legal agreement. Take time to consider these so you will be successful in choosing the right franchise available.

The Essentials of Sales – 101

Everything you Need to Know about Franchising Franchising is simply put as giving of rights to operate in the same products as the mother company to another business in another geographical location, away from the original business. We could also say that franchising is leasing or renting for an opportunity. The Mother Company is now referred to as the franchisor while the business that gets the permission to operate is called the franchise. The franchisee is required to pay to the franchisor some money to be allowed to operate. There are financial commitments that the franchisee must fulfill to be given the green light to operate. The franchisor only allows the franchisee to operate only when trademark’s royalty, the cost of training and advisory services and agreement to pay a certain percentage of each unit sold are met. When the franchise succeeds the franchisor also succeeds. The franchisee’s period of operation is limited to the franchise agreement. However the franchise agreement could be renewed every time it expires. Every single franchise is supposed to operate at the agreed location. Every party to the franchising concept is charged with a different role; the franchisor is obligated with protecting the trademark while the franchisee is charged with the role of carrying out the services that entail the trademark.
A Quick Overlook of Sales – Your Cheatsheet
Two types of franchises exist- the single franchise and the multi-franchise. The franchise that operates more than one unit is called a multi-franchise while a franchise that operates one unit is called a single franchise.
Why No One Talks About Sales Anymore
The franchisor and the multi-franchisee agree on what number of units to open and in what period and in a specific geographical region. A unique agreement for each unit of the franchise is set. The popularity of multi-franchise is very high. Multi-franchise has had much influence over the many years they have been in existence. To set up multi-franchises high levels of investments are required. Multi-franchises have high levels of stability which is their major advantage. The level of success of the multi-franchises is very high. Multi-franchises achieves more than original franchises. One location that a single franchise operates from might disadvantage it. The reason why multi-franchises have enjoyed exponential growth is that of popularity growth. With the success of multi-franchises the franchisors might want to cash in on that huge success by encouraging the multi-franchises to open more units. The other advantage with the multi-franchise is that when one unit seems not to be doing great, the other units may come in and help to revive them. Good researchers should be done to establish the viability of multi-franchises. Ready cash and other forms of investments are needed for the multi-franchise to thrive.

How I Achieved Maximum Success with Engineering

Advantages of Being a Member of the American Society of Safety Engineers All professions have their own goals. Each career path has a specific way in which people perceive it. Some careers are said to be more full of risk in comparison to others, but that depends on how adventurous one is. The American Society of Safety Engineers is a global organization, which has been running for slightly more than a hundred years now. It is a an organization that allows people from all over the globe to join ad it has close to 37,000 professionals that supervise, manage, research and consult on issues relating to occupational safety and health in government, education as well as industries. It is easy for one to become a member. Below are a number of the advantages one may get from joining the society. Personal Growth One always has room to grow. One of the best ways to ensure you grow as an individual is by interacting with people who challenge you. In this organization, membership allows you to grow in a number of ways. This type of personal growth does not just apply to the career you are in. It could also mean those tiny habits that hold you back from fully self-actualizing in a particular area of your life.
Learning The Secrets About Services
Promotes Problem Solving
Finding Similarities Between Resources and Life
Two people will always be more productive than one. This is basically one of the most common phrases. Nonetheless, such an organization can help you come up with amazing solutions that can help in taking care of problems that deal with health and safety. Each person in the organization may have their own perception of things which might contribute to a different issue compared to others. Nevertheless, when people are moving towards the same end, it becomes easier to tackle the problems and come up with solutions. More Job Opportunities As a member of such an organization, you get to network with other people as well as boost your CV. When you have something great and special to bring to the table there is no doubt you will have more opportunities to grow. Professional Leadership Organization The Organization is considered a leadership organization for professionals. Being a member definitely boosts your confidence. Being affiliated with such a program will help you open up your scope to how you practice stuff. Encourages Networking Among Professionals You can expand your horizons just by interacting with other members in the field globally. You all get to share your experiences in the profession and in the process you get to learn something new. Enhances Education for Members Who are Students Students are also open to joining this awesome organization that can help create open doors in their school work.

Learning The “Secrets” of Engineering

Finding the Most Up-to-Date Demolition and Engineering Standards One of the most common things you’ll have to do when you’re dealing with construction is having to take down existing buildings so that you can completely prepare the space for the new building that you’re putting together. The vast majority of construction companies who need to have construction done are going to look for a team of demolition experts who will know the right way to go about doing the work. Because there are so many different types of issues that you’ll have to keep in mind when you’re dealing with any sort of demolition, it’s essential that you take some time to find the right safety and engineering crew. This is especially true when it comes to larger buildings that might be especially prone to cause problems when being destroyed. Luckily, having a good understanding of all the most important engineering standards will make it much more likely that you’re going to find the engineers who can get the job done. You’re going to find that the primary thing you’ll want out of any kind of demolition team will be a facility with the basic handling and use of commercial explosives and blasting agents. When you’re dealing with larger buildings, you’re going to find that the main thing you’ll use to destroy them will be large-scale explosives. The right types of demolition engineers are going to be the perfect people to work with to ensure you meet every possible explosive and demolition standard the government might have.
Smart Ideas: Engineering Revisited
You may also want to make sure that any team of demolition engineers you’re dealing with has enough experience to recognize any potential problems that might come up regarding your project. When you’ve been able to find the kind of engineering team, they will be able to assess all the possible problems and make sure they have the kinds of safety engineers that will necessary to get you the kind of safety and effective demolition that you’re looking for. The more time you can spend evaluating different types of threats, the easier it will be to get your building demolished effectively.
Doing Engineering The Right Way
You’re going to have to keep a lot of different things in mind when you’re trying to ensure you’re hiring the right kinds of engineers to help you with your demolition. If you have a building you need to get out of the way prior to starting some new construction, there is no doubt that you’re going to be able to rely on these engineers to make sure you’re in great shape.

Valuable Lessons I’ve Learned About Services

How Fiber Optic Internet Benefits Businesses Telecommunications is a field that uses modern technology to help individuals, organizations and institutions communicate especially through online networks. In telecommunications there are fiber optic internet connections. Telecommunications has fiber optic communications as its form. Information is transmitted by it from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. Optical fiber is used in many telecommunications companies whereby high bandwidth and long distance transmission of information is required. The light in optical fiber forms an electromagnetic carrier wave and it is modulated to carry information. It is used to transmit telephone signals, internet communication and cable television signals. In transmission over long distance and in high demand applications, optical fiber has more advantages than the existing copper wire. Much lower attenuation and interference are what it has and this makes it preferred to copper wire. An optical transmitter, a cable and an optical receiver are what it includes. Semiconductor devices mostly are what the transmitters are. The cables contain bundles of multiple optical fibers which are routed through underground conduits and buildings. The receiver on the other hand is meant to recover signal as an electrical signal.
Where To Start with Companies and More
To be reliable, efficient and compact is how the transmitters should be designed. The optical receiver main component is a photo detector which converts light into electricity using photoelectric effect The optical cable on the other hand consists of a core, cladding and a buffer. A buffer is the protective outer coating in which the cladding guides the light along the core.
What Almost No One Knows About Phones
There are two types of optic fiber cables used in optic communications and they are single-mode optical fibers and multi-mode optical fibers. One among many of the advantages of fiber connectivity is high speed. Offered by fiber optical communications is the highest speed in connections. Than even the highest copper internet connections it is many times faster. For apps the cloud is an important business tool. Meant by the speed and bandwidth capabilities of fiber internet, is faster access to data applications stored in the cloud and this is in respect to cloud access. It is highly reliable. Internet connections that are unreliable can have real cost to business. Offered by fiber internet connectivity is significant reliability due to the fact that fiber is much stronger than copper. Unless they are cut physically, they have resistance to human and electrical interference. To adverse weather conditions; it is not susceptible. As compared to traditional broadband internet, the signal strength of fiber optic internet does not degrade quickly over distance. The signal becomes weaker as the user moves away from the switch in Ethernet over copper. The speed does not decrease as the network is put on high demands because the bandwidth availability of optical fiber is high.