5G Vision Across Industries – 2019 AT&T Business Summit


[MUSIC PLAYING] Good morning. Thank you, everyone. How’s everybody doing today? Whew! Nice. Where’s my hype crew? We’ve got an interesting crowd here in the audience, and we have some experts in and around technology innovation here in the medicals health care space as well as sports and entertainment. And I’ll introduce the guests here in just a second. It is interactive, so please grab your smartphone, and open the app. There’s going to be polling questions, and we’re going to ebb and flow off of the responses. OK, so I’m looking forward to all of that information coming, and we’ll opine back and forth. But my name’s Robert Boyanovksy. I head up the mobility– enterprise mobility product management organization at AT&T on the business side, so the last couple of years, we’ve been ideating with our customers here, building out new enterprise products in and around 5G. Our strategy is really threefold– mobility-centric 5G solutions, fixed, which we’re going to talk a little bit about here as well as Edge, kind of the sexy, cool things. You may have heard a little bit about the Microsoft relationship that we born this year around Edge Compute, so some really interesting things that we’re doing there. But before I get into that, I want to go through and introduce the panelists here. On my immediate left in the handsome blue suit, Patrick Hale with collars that are staying down. Very nice. We shared a little tech story. We have these magnetic collars. I don’t think they interfere with the mics, but we’ll see. OK, maybe my hand is. Patrick is EVP/CIO at Vitas Health Care, the nation’s leading provider of end of life care. His bio is in the app, too. There’s a long award list. I’ve got a few highlights here– award winner, mobile technology, putting technology in the hands of 8,000 clinicians across the United States, mobile-supported hospice care– you think about how distributed his patient is. They’re in every zip code, probably, in the country. Global winner of the 2018 Process Excellence Network Award, 2017 CIO of the Year, Florida Business Journal, named top health care industry innovator in 2012. I’m going to keep going– Top 20 World’s Most Tech Savvy Companies Worldwide prior to joining Vitas. So Patrick, welcome. Thank you. It’s a privilege. Thank you. Next to him is a good friend of AT&T’s and mine. I’ve got to know Matt Messick, CIO of the world famous America’s team, Dallas Cowboys. I love the Cowboys. They’re my second favorite team behind America’s first original team, the Green Bay Packers. [SPARSE CHEERS] Hey, a couple of Pack– we’ll start– we laid an egg this weekend. I don’t know what happened. No Lions fans? [SPARSE CHEERS] All right, there we go. So Matt has the responsibility of leading all technology for not only AT&T Stadium, the Cowboys franchises, but all of the Jones enterprises, which probably keeps him extremely busy. We appreciate him joining us here, and probably, I’m sure, above my Packers, for sure above Detroit, but the world’s leading franchise of professional sports, I would say. So Matt, thank you for joining. Last but not least, batting cleanup, Dr. Joseph Shega, SVP, chief medical officer at Vitas, so these two came together. Thank you. So we’ve got the IT brain of the company, and we have the medical side of the company here as well. Vitas is the nation’s leading provider of end of life care, responsible for the medical directors, physician services, basically the overall medical direction of the firm. Devoted his entire career to improving the care of adults near end of life. Managing editor of Pain and Aging section of Pain Management and Medicine, editorial board of Journal of Pain Symptoms Management. He has peer reviewed over 50 publications in this space. Currently a roundtable of quality care of people with serious illness through the National Academy of Medicine, so clearly capable to kind of join us in this talk around innovation in your space, pain augmentation, pain therapy, end of life. All right, and then there’s me. So I do have one patent, but that’s a different story. It wasn’t for the collar thing. No, I invented something that was to help me take notes, because I’m terrible at taking notes at meetings. And that was about 10 years ago. I got a little piece of acrylic, and that was really about it. But anyway, I’ve been in this journey with AT&T for 25 years, started in mobility at a company called Cellular One when 1G was super cool. We were flying at one megabit per second. We had brick phones that were– I don’t know– a small weapon, if you think about it back then, through all of the G’s, so today in our network, we have 3G, 4G, and 5G. 5G is now nearly a year old. December 20th last year, we were in a panel similar this talking about the new networks and what we could possibly do together as enterprises and partners. Now we’re here to talk to you about what we’ve done. There was a lot of fodder last year, a lot of hype. There still is a ton of that, a ton of hype in this space, but we have real life experiences now that we’d like to share. All right, with that– put the phone down for me– we will go right into the first– oh, there we are. Sorry. Handsome devils. We dropped the ties, though. That’s a good look. Industry benefits– who do you think will benefit most, earliest and most often, I guess, around 5G and the benefits– health care, retail, manufacturing, sports and entertainment, and other? So in your app, please. Jeopardy music from the audio team. Oh. OK, health care, 1. Three is manufacturing. Matt, you do spend a little bit of time in that space, and you have a background, Patrick, in manufacturing as well. So those are kind of bouncing around. Very smart and intuitive audience with the health care professionals on the panel. Good, good choice. So let’s go straight off into these questions. So Patrick, first one for you– looks like the audience has said health care is a driving and manufacturing close second in this list, but tell us a little bit about how the technology evolved and how hospice is revolutionizing right now in pain management, some of the insights that you’re seeing in your field. Sure. I have to agree with this very esteemed audience here that it’s a huge deal. Mobility and 5G is just a huge deal with health care. We’ve come to the realization that hospitals are actually a place where a lot of sick people are. And with that, with that reality, it’s people don’t want to be in the hospital. So as health care, there’s two big megatrends that I think really influence this. The first one is that care is moving outside of the four walls of the hospital. It’s moving closer and closer to the patient’s home. So you’re going to hear a lot of hype in health care right now about patient experience and meet the patient where they want to be, and we really put the onus of the entire health care system– it’s a complex system, where you have insurance companies and providers and specialists. And we really put the onus on the patient to figure that all out. And what you’re seeing is a big shift. A megatrend in health care is that we really have to get serious about meeting the patient where they live, and that means figuratively and literally. So you’re seeing care getting closer and closer to the home at Vitas, and we’ve made investments in mobility to ensure that our clinical workstation is a mobile workstation and that our reality, what Dr. Shega and I live every day with hospice care, is that about 80% of our care is provided in a patient’s home. This is where folks that are facing life-limiting illness want to be. And so we’ve been a mobile company for quite some time now. We’ve made big bets in mobility under 4G. I think 5G is transformational for us. The second big piece of the puzzle, when you talk about 5G and mobility and health care, is that physicians– and maybe Dr. Shega can speak to this– they’re getting pretty fed up with the EMRs. So EMRs, if you think about it, rounding physician in a hospital has about eight minutes per patient to talk to that patient, interact with that patient. Then they have to move on to the next patient in their rounds. You spend five to six of those minutes with your back to the patient typing information into a computer that sometimes, in really forward-thinking hospitals, is on wheels. So they wheel them around, or you have someone following behind you to do the dictation of your notes as you’re doing your rounds. So mobility offers us this promise where we live our lives with apps that are swipes and clicks and pointing fingers, and basically, at Vitas, we have applications where you’ll see a picture of a body. And if you have a symptom– your left leg has pain– you touch the left leg. That translates into ICD-10 codes and other charting realities that save a physician time, save a clinician or a nurse time. So these two trends really point toward one platform– mobility. And 5G means that you can get connected anywhere and at speeds that are unheard of under what we think about today. So those things are super important and big factors for health. So Patrick, there’s a lot of tech that you just explained there and what’s happening around order entry speed, support of the staff, and I’m wondering, Dr. Shega, around the patient side, how’s the tech kind of evolved into improved patient experience or changed your strategies around patient care? Yeah, first, I’d like to thank you, because nobody really wants to talk about end of life care. And whenever we do a symposium, it’s usually not very full. So partnering hospitals with football was a great way– There’s a lot of pain going on. [INTERPOSING VOICES] So I’ll try to bring that strategy back home to Miami. But really, as patients approach the end of life– and all of us will eventually be there– you know, pain, shortness of breath, anxiety are common symptoms people experience. And medications only do so much. And so through leveraging 5G through virtual reality, we have a whole new approach, an opportunity to give patients– to help better manage their symptoms. So we’re leveraging VR through that route. The other thing is things that patients report is very important to them at the end of life is to further build relationships with their loved ones. And through joint experiences through VR, that’s another opportunity where patients and their loved ones, even though the patient may not be able to travel anymore, through VR, can either relive experiences they’ve done together or create new experiences. Nice, and I see, Matt, it looks like entertainment sports is kind of creeping up the list a solid 25%. So how are you and the Cowboys looking at new technologies in or around 5G for either the venue or fan or operational experiences for the Dallas Cowboys? Yeah, I mean, we sat here last year, and we were talking about deploying 5G and what that meant. We knew we were going to do it. Did we know exactly what we were going to do at that time? No. I look at that poll, and I see sports, entertainment, manufacturing, retail. I mean we hit on all of those, and I look at it as an opportunity to take that technology into some of our other businesses, and then work that into our gameday experience. And so at the stadium, we were able to deploy 5G, first sports entertainment venue in the world. And we were able to take that and create levels of fan experience, a deep, immersive experience that not only allowed the fans to see what 5G is, because everybody’s talking about it, but nobody really understands exactly what it is. And so we created these experiences to elevate the fan time at the stadium, to be able to tell their story, but also to put their hands on 5G and see exactly what it is. And then we started asking those questions of, where else can we take this inside of our business? And at our training facility, we have two large outdoor– two football fields outdoors, and we’re trying to create this experience for our coaches to be able to take instant replays, live practice, and send that down to tablets. And yes, you see that happening on the sidelines in the game, but nobody’s doing that at their practice. So we’re leveraging MEC. So before, when we were experimenting, we had to roll a server cabinet out onto the middle of the football field. And now they just walk out the door with a couple of tablets with LTE using MEC. And then we kept asking more questions. What else can we do? And so we’re building into the manufacturing/retail spaces. We manufacture, wholesale, distribute all of our own merchandising, the only team in the NFL. We’re building a new warehouse right now, 500,000 square foot. And so we were looking at, how can we change– how can we improve operational efficiencies, instead of doing things the way they’ve always been done in warehouses? So let’s deploy some LTE, 5G, MEC, and then we’ve easily connected 500 devices that are constantly roaming around the warehouse. Yeah, so thank you, guys, for answering the first question clearly. When we first started this journey, we weren’t really sure what to expect around AR/VR patient pain management, nor in the stadium. You– our organizations knew we wanted to have the first venue in the world, so we went and did that. And then it’s like, great, now the tech’s there. What are we going to do with it? And then we quickly came behind that and started kind of playing with the technology both from a fan experience as well as operational improvement for the organization. Next, we’re going to segue into the next question, question number two. Who is responsible for this 5G strategy in the organization? Where is this coming from? Who’s making this, hey, let’s go explore, let’s get our feet wet? IT, marketing department, executive leadership, ops, or finance? Looks like the IT side had an early push in here. Marketing is nowhere to be found at 2%. Finance clearly behind the curve. Looks like the IT group here is first and foremost. So as we transition to this next– we’ll go down here to Dr. Shega first. Where did the innovation or the idea incubate within your organization? Was it Patrick’s idea? Well, of course, Patrick has all the good ideas based on all the awards. But aside of that, it was interesting, because Patrick and I were in a meeting, and he was talking about how to improve the patient’s experience. And my background is academics, University of Chicago, Northwestern University, Pittsburgh, and so everything is about randomized control trials and data. And Patrick’s like, you have to think beyond that, and technology’s here, and we have to think of ways to bring treatments that maybe don’t have those randomized control trials and start doing some of those initial groundbreaking studies ourselves. And so he really pitched the idea to really try to revolutionize the patient experience through VR and 5G. So that’s really how it started. I was– I’m generally risk adverse to begin with and love to sit in my studies. And so he really pushed me out of my comfort zone to embrace it, and it’s been an amazing experience for patients and families. Oh, so the tech guy was pushing on patient outcomes and patient care. And did you think you had something in mind here or what? Well, we knew, and just to kind of explain what we’re doing in a little more detail, we’re bringing VR experiences to those folks that are dealing with life-limiting illness. And so we had seen some initial studies of children in the ED that had to do– had a spinal tap or what have you. And they put on VR goggles, and they’d have this experience, and their pain– they didn’t have to have opioids at a young age in order to deal with that. And we thought, we’ve got a lot of patients in a lot of pain, and maybe there’s something here that we could do for them. And as we talked about it, the idea of this pilot germinated. And our big problem was, how do we get– it can’t be a cheap VR experience. It’s got to be 4K. It’s got to take the patient out of their current reality, which is sometimes pretty grim and difficult, and into something that just assaults our senses. And really, it’s just called distraction therapy. And so in order to get that 4K experience to the patient’s bedside, where the bedside is at home or maybe a nursing home or maybe in a hospital, you have to have 5G in order to make that happen. So we used– currently, today, we’re using 5G hotspots to make a lot of that happen. And I’ll just tell them, I mean just say some of the experiences– and Dr. Shega’s absolutely right. Clinical studies take a long time. They could take years, but just our initial two patients that we gave this to, we had a stroke victim, a female stroke victim, older, was bed bound, had a pain score– I think it was a 10, right? We were at a 10. So that’s– 10 is– that’s the highest. On opioids, maximum dose opioids, beyond which going any further would be clinically dangerous to the patient. The pain would only drop to an 8, so two five-minute interactions on VR, which I think she went to Machu Picchu, and then she did kind of a guided meditation tour through an English garden or on the beach or something like that. Two five-minute interactions, her pain score dropped to a 2, stayed a 2 for several hours, enough for her to actually take a nap and get a good sleep for the first time in many months. So these are just– we went from thinking, maybe this is a good idea, and let’s get a study together– you know what? The results are exciting enough, and that’s all– that’s anecdotal, but they’re exciting enough that we’re already expanding the program in California now to 50 clinicians now, are armed with VR devices, and are giving treatments in hospitals and nursing homes and homes across a couple of programs in California. And we’re in the planning stages of a nationwide rollout. Yeah, that’s really awesome, that story. It’s pretty emotional to go– to listen to that and hear how that occurred. On the strategy side of things for the Dallas Cowboys, what was the seed that sprout there? What was happening within the management team? Well, to get to that, we’ve got to take it back 10 years, when the Dallas Cowboys– we’ll call it Jerry Jones– when they built the stadium, it was, we’re going to lead with technology. We are going to be innovative, and we’re going to constantly push it. And that was going all the way back. I mean when we opened the doors, back then, technology, it was the iPhone 1, and we didn’t even really know what we were getting into at that point. But it led with our video experience. We had over 3,000 TVs, I mean just things like that, just delivering content. And then it kind of transformed, and we were the first stadium to provide Wi-Fi for all of the fans. That was in the early, like you said, 2G, 3G days. You know, that wasn’t enough. We were starting to see the demand for data just grow and grow and grow. And then, thankful to me, when we took it to another level, and the Cowboys partnered with AT&T, AT&T Stadium. And then that kind of just kept pushing us. And that was a commitment on their part to technology. No matter what it says, just the names on the building, but they made it very clear to the ownership that that was our priority. And so when 5G started getting talked about, I mean it was a no brainer. That was led from the executive leadership, the ownership, right down to us. Now when you step away from that fan experience at AT&T Stadium, and you’d go into the other businesses of operational efficiencies and from our warehouse and different things of how we can leverage 5G, MEC, that kind of falls back on me. You know, I’ve got to drive that. But yeah, from the 5G experience and everything we’ve created right now, and we’re going to create, that’s top-down. Yeah, that’s great. It’s a terrific story there, and I could see that happening within the culture, getting to know your organization a little bit over the years. It’s a messy field out there right now in terms of the ecosystem around 5G. Carriers are out, as we are, throwing maps around like we will– biggest, baddest, fastest, coolest– all the superlatives that are out there. The coolest really? It’s going to be. And we also have the device ecosystem. Then you have non-traditional carriers, the new entrants that are coming in. A lot of talk around CBRS technology and private networks. So how do you cut through all the clutter with this ecosystem that’s nascent? These use cases and apps are still nascent and new. As you define your strategy of picking a path and charting it, what are some of the things that you’ve learned? I’d say one of our first things that we learned was you’ve got to have the right partner. And so you do have a pretty competitive landscape. I’ll say this. I mean we wouldn’t have gotten off of square one if it wasn’t for the partner we picked, which was AT&T, you guys. AT&T brought to the table the content. They brought relationships. So they had– when you talk about VR, this is something we didn’t– it’s all about the content, so pulling that together and making that happen. But when you’re faced with choices, one thing and one thing only matters to us. Does that phone have connectivity? When we have a clinical workstation that’s either an iPhone or an iPad, and it can’t get connected, it’s got to be reliable, it’s got to be real, and it’s a pretty simple bar for us. In addition to that just is all the partnership pieces that there’s no other company with the reach that you guys have. That’s been really important, actually, for us to be able to do some pretty amazing things, I think. Yeah, I appreciate that. And our FirstNet network for public safety first responders and band 14 frequencies is really important in your space, because you want the entire ecosystem of public safety to be in and out of the operations that your clinicians are also interacting whether that’s in a home, in a hospital, or to and from. With interest of time, we will move on to the third and final question. What will be the most important proponent for delivering results with 5G? So device ecosystem, application readiness, edge compute, financial investments or business cases, and new use cases? The biggest driver inside of 5G’s success. So it looks interesting here. New apps– I think they’re going to come, right? The application ecosystem, ultra low latency– think about giant bandwidth, ultra low latency applications. I think they’re going to trail. It may not be the leading one. Looks like here the use case. What are we going to use this technology for, which is probably the right answer. And I know as, listen, capitalists and business-minded companies, to survive, you’ve got to have financial outcomes. Otherwise, none of this really gets off the ground. But sounds like first and foremost, we’ve got the use cases. What are we going to use this technology for? Matt, let’s go with you on that. So innovation around new use cases is the key driver, most important driver for the success of 5G. What would you say about that? A lot. I’ll try not to eat up the last 13 minutes. But so when you get into all these new use cases, we can talk about MEC. We can talk about all the different tools, CBRS, private LTE. In my world, if you just step back from the fan experience, and we’re going to talk about just operational efficiencies from the time you pull up to the stadium, when you’re having your parking ticket scanned. If you can reduce that transaction from 90 seconds to 20 seconds– Make you happier. Yeah. I mean like– well, not just happier, but– and we’re just trying to get people in the building, and we’re trying to get the streets cleared as fast as possible. And it seems very minor, but that creates a whole new level of experience for the fans. Just breeze right on through, but leveraging multiple things from private LTE, CBRS. But once you get into the stadium, we have– if you’re looking at MEC, when you have your ticket takers that are at the door, those are all primarily Wi-Fi-driven right now. Well, if we can get those off an unlicensed spectrum and leveraging MEC, leveraging CBRS or whatnot, then we can make that transaction run a lot smoother. But then stepping back to the fun stuff, like for the players and the coaches out there, that was something little. Robert was– I mean, literally, this is exactly what happened. Robert was out presenting to our ownership about MEC and some of the other things. And the whole time, my brain just started spinning of like, I’m looking out the window of our training facility and looking back at these two football fields. And I’m like, I’ve got the perfect use case. We can do this right now. So it is the use cases. It is what– like Anne Chow talked about this morning, that transformation of trying to understand what it is that you need to solve. You have to find those use cases. Yeah, I think that’s right, and some of those, like we said earlier, we didn’t know what we were going to do. The immersive column’s experience is one of the things that we did together as a showcase of technology and interactive, immersive experience at AT&T Stadium that had some pretty good feedback. Yeah, I mean that one– we’re creating these experiences. We’re trying to tell the story of what 5G is. And so AT&T, the Cowboys, we’re putting all of our heads– we have 5G installed. All right, what are we going to do? What story are we going to tell? And so we created these different experiences, and we had Pose with the Pros. It was one of five, and we were all looking at it as, these are all really cool stuff. But it just took one and one person, and it went completely viral. And here’s the funny story about that is we’re all– that week after it went viral and went crazy, we’re patting ourselves on the back, and we’re high fiving, and this is great. We forgot to tell stadium operations that this thing is blowing up. Next game, doors open, and people were literally running to these activations. Well, in the area that it was, that was a main entrance. We were just trying to catch people walking in the door, and lines were blocking concession stands, going and blocking seating areas. And the stadium general manager comes up to me, and he goes, you know, a little heads up would have been nice, because I had to like restructure lines and do all types of things. And so that was really exciting for us, and telling that story to the world of like, what– this is what’s possible. I know it’s fun, and it’s fun for the fans. But it’s that core technology that makes it possible. Yeah, very cool. How about you, Dr. Shega, around new use cases, things that you guys are looking at in the patient care side of things for Vitas? The main thing, as Patrick had indicated, symptom management is particularly important. I think the other thing is patient experience is everything. The millennials have sort of brought that to the forefront. And I think when people start to decline and die from their underlying illnesses, the big fear is being in bed and that defining who you are. And virtual reality offers an opportunity to not be in the bed and to be someplace else, to do something else. And so to me, that’s really amazing and can be transformative as people think about their dying experiences and how they’re going to spend that time. And so it doesn’t always have to be in bed, and it could also be with their family. So you can imagine maybe on your bucket list, you always wanted to go to Rome with your loved ones, and now you’re bed bound. And now your daughter can’t travel, and they’re in New York, and you’re in Miami, and both being able to do VR virtually together and go on that virtual reality trip to Rome together, and then recording that experience leaving legacy, there’s just so many opportunities to change how people think about end of life and what that experience is like. So there’s a lot of exciting opportunities. Yeah, very cool. Patrick, any last words? I might– just on this question, so I’m going to be contrary, because I do think our brains run toward the use cases, because it’s exciting, because 5G reduces the latency, and it improves bandwidth, and it’s all these great things. And now, suddenly, there’s a whole new world of kind of Uber-like solutions that are going to come to the fore. That’s really exciting. But I think the truly game changing thing about this technology, its deployment, and its architecture is the Edge computing element. I think that, for us, is what is kind of like why you hear people comparing the advent of 5G to the introduction of horses to America or the invention of the printing press. I’ve seen those comparisons. And it’s because of Edge computing, where you talk about right now, in Miami, we have– BMW has self-driving cars that drive around Miami. So they have these big server thing on top of them that’s just this huge server that sits on top of the car. So the car is able to make decisions in real time, so that’s what you’ve got to have is this multi-million dollar supercomputer data center on top of your car in order to have a self-driving car. Well, with Edge computing, we deploy compute to the edge so that as the car roams, it leverages the compute power as it goes. And that is an immediate compute. That really changes the way we live, and then imagine the use cases that occur when that happens. So for me, on that list, the thing that I am totally geeked and excited about everything we can do with reduced latency that 5G’s bringing already. I just think it’s amazing. But what really changes– the way our kids’ kids are going to be brought up, our kids don’t know where they’re going, because they have GPS. They have no idea. I don’t know either yet right now. But I would just say, their lives, their children’s lives will be fundamentally different. And I think Edge computing is probably the key factor that tips 5G into that realm that’s just what– we don’t even know what’s possible even today. Yeah, so I’ve got a 13-year-old. He doesn’t know where he’s going, but his mom does. She’s tracking every last step of that little guy. So unhealthily, so unhealthy. That’s unhealthy? I’m going to pray for your children tonight. Please pray. That means a lot coming from you guys, actually. So on the product side, we’re in the middle of developing multiaxis Edge compute, two different flavors of Edge compute. There’s a press release that’s dropping out this week, University of Miami. It’s our first commercial product of Edge compute. As Matt’s talked about, we’ve got instances within their facility doing some unique things. Basically, there’s two different flavors of it, guys. There’s an on premise solution, so if you need your compute completely private, completely secure, not going back to our core– today we have 11 cores. So if you take your phone out– well, here in Dallas, we have a core here, so it’ll not go very far. But if you’re, let’s say, in Denver and make a data session in Denver, it hairpins back to Dallas. That latency is really what we’re counting. It’s these networks turn into software, and that software can get closer and closer to where the endpoints are creating the actual data. So on premise solutions, so think warehousing, enterprises, practice facilities, anywhere you’ve got cellular data that you want to keep and keep those applications local to reduce video buffering or just keep it private and secure, that’s the solution that has just launched this week. And then our announcement with Microsoft you may have heard earlier, he was talking about our relationship there on a national Edge compute platform. So we’ve got 11 centers today. Those centers, the brain of our mobile network, is turning into software. That software is distributing out to where all the data is being created, and inside those data centers, we’re co-locating with Microsoft as your stack. So if you have Microsoft services, and you want ultra low latency experiences– think 20 milliseconds or better– you can go purchase those through Microsoft. So that’s just the technology layer that’s going underneath this thing. That’s going to prove these ubiquitous low latency experiences. You know, some of that compute in the car is going to happen. LIDAR technology is getting, obviously, very good, very– camera technology, et cetera. But they still need networks to communicate to each other, car to car, car to network. And I think you’re right. I think Edge compute is one of those things that we’re just starting to see. So thank you, panelists, for all of your feedback. Thanks for coming in to join me and have this conversation. Thanks for the journey we’ve been on this year. I’m excited about the cool stuff that we haven’t thought of yet, Matt, Patrick, Joe, as we go push into the next decade. We do have three minutes left, so this is a good time to answer a question or two. Mike, runner? Not sure if we need it. Nobody wants to know what happened to the black cat. Yes, was that a 5G black cat in New Jersey, Matt, when the Giants lost last night? It was a plant. It was a Cowboys cat. I saw the star. The game changed. You might be wanting that cat back. That was good luck. Yeah, everything changed after that cat ran out. Yeah, you guys looked good. If you don’t know what we’re talking about, you got to google it. Yeah, so last night on the– on the football game, Monday Night Football, primetime, there was a cat, black cat running around New Jersey on the field. It was a good two, three minutes of entertainment. Scored a T and got 100-yard rush. He distracted the whole team? Yeah, you guys scored. Good job. Anybody have any questions? Got one. Do you see 5G replacing Wi-Fi, ultimately, or totally different markets? I see you’re introducing 5G in stadiums to replace why Wi-Fi. I’d love your answer to that. I think it’s complementary. I think Wi-Fi 6 is going to be a lot better than existing Wi-Fi technology. But they’re going to complement each other. And I think the main reason for that is still around the device ecosystem and the price points. Like it’s not very expensive to find Wi-Fi radios to embed into cell phones, IoT devices, and it’s still fairly expensive to put LTE at an order of magnitude. But currently, today, to create a 5G module and put it in an IoT endpoint, it’s an even order of magnitude higher. So until those economies of scale kind of push down the product cost, I think Wi-Fi is going to continue to exist. That’d be my opinion on it. Yeah, I agree 100%. I mean and to that point, I mean you guys– I mean you see it, but we’re living this world of no matter how much data we put out there, the fans, the consumers are eating it up. Even from last year’s game 1 to this year’s game 1, we had a 35% increase in just data overall. But that is– and then there was a 15% increase to the next game. It just– no matter how much you put out there, but his point is you have to be able to make sure that you’re meeting all those needs for every single fan. We just can’t all of a sudden expect that is going to walk in with a 5G handset. But there’s also some other technology that are coming out that are going to allow the application shaping between LTE and Wi-Fi and different things. And so it’s all a matter of what we’re trying to to do. It becomes less and less relevant, actually, over time, and then I do think that with 5G, your consumer profile is going to change a lot. So we’re used to having– you have to have Wi-Fi hot spots. You’re not going to necessarily need those anymore. So people are going to be armed with a super connected device wherever they are. And so I think that will fundamentally sort of change some of the ways we look at Wi-Fi. It’s a good question. Every enterprise that I talk to wants to look at the gamut. And they really need to be doing that on their strategy. Talk to me about Wi-Fi technology, where it’s going. Give me a five-year sense of that. Tell me about unlicensed networks, right private networks. What does that look like from a business case perspective, and how much data can that grow? How much frequency or bandwidth is available, and will it meet my needs on the enterprise? And then in or around 5G, with a MEC solution like we talked about, is another– it’s another avenue to explore, which is a very different model. Think of it like a private network, except it’s running off a cellular license spectrum. But you own all the data, and that’s what’s most important. So when we had these engagements with customers, we typically get those questions. How fast is 5G? Is it going to replace Wi-Fi? When can I get it? How does it compare to private CBRS networks? And help me rationalize this. And so as a product management professional at AT&T, we try to bring forward perspective on all of it and help customers think through, what are you trying to achieve? What are your needs in a business, and what kind of total cost of ownership business case are you trying to make? And help customers kind of weed through all that. [MUSIC PLAYING] Thank you so much. Appreciate you guys attending, and have a great rest of the conference. Thanks for watching. For more videos from AT&T Business, click Subscribe.

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