There Are More Than Two Human Sexes


[♪ INTRO] In high school biology, we usually learn that
the sexes in humans are fixed and concrete. Whether you’re male or female is black-and-white
and rooted in your DNA: your 23rd pair of chromosomes is either two X chromosomes or
an X and a Y. That’s it. End of story. And that’s essentially what scientists thought,
too. But it turns out that sex isn’t that straightforward. In fact, biologists today are saying sex is
a spectrum. And the scientific community is still working
on understanding and respecting the people who fall in the middle of that spectrum. To get this out of the way right up front:
we’re not talking about gender or sexuality here. Gender refers to social and cultural attributes
and understandings of men and women and their roles—though, not every culture has only
two categories, and it’s increasingly seen as a spectrum. Plus, the gender you identify as may or may
not be the same one as what you express with things like your clothing and behavior, all
of which can also be on a spectrum. Sexuality describes who you are attracted
to, and it can be equally complicated and on a spectrum. And where you are on these
spectrums isn’t necessarily fixed! But what we are talking about today is your
biology, including your chromosomes, your hormones, your gonads, and your genitals. The catch is that these biological features
don’t always agree with each other. And they certainly don’t always conform
to those high school health class diagrams that tell us there is a single, universally
correct pathway to being male and female. In fact, it’s estimated that nearly 2% of
live births are born with congenital conditions of atypical sex development. That basically
means that something in their chromosomes, hormones, gonads, or genitals is different
from what many people expect of a “boy” or a “girl.” This used to be known as being intersex, but
these days, it’s better described as having differences of sexual development, or DSDs. And while nearly 2% might not sound like a
lot, it means there could be 130 million people or more with DSDs. If all those people were
in one country, it’d be among the top ten most populous countries in the world! Plus, DSDs are not always something you can
see. People can spend their whole lives thinking they’re one sex based on anatomy only to
find at least part of them tells a different story. You see, your sex is the result of both sexual
determination and sexual differentiation. Sexual determination has to do with what chromosomes
you get. Those largely determine what happens to your body during sexual differentiation—the
process by which you develop the physiological characteristics associated with your sex. And contrary to what you might think, that
differentiation doesn’t stop when you’re born—it continues throughout your life. That means there are a lot of moments where
differences between people can happen—so of course there are a ton of different outcomes! We tend to put those outcomes into two boxes
based on visible anatomy, or what scientists call phenotypes. Phenotypical males have testicles
and a penis, while phenotypical females have ovaries, a uterus, a vagina, and vulva. But in reality, none of the traits we use
to discriminate between the sexes are truly binary. There’s a lot of variation within what we
call male or female, and there’s a lot of overlap that’s normal, too. Anatomically, someone might look phenotypically
female on the outside but not have ovaries or a uterus, or have tissue from both ovaries
and testes. And genetics aren’t any clearer, because
when it comes to chromosomes, people don’t always get two Xs or an X and a Y. Xs and Ys contain genes that help determine
sex, with the Y chromosome conferring the genes that enable you to develop male reproductive
parts. But the processes for producing sperm and
eggs are really complicated, and they can lead to lots of different results. In this process, (abbreviated version) specialized
cells basically duplicate themselves, then undergo two rounds of division to produce
reproductive cells, or gametes, that have half of the parent’s genetic material. So,
it makes one set of 23 chromosomes. But sometimes, the chromosomes don’t split
into exact sets of 23—and that means there are a whole bunch of possible combinations
of Xs and Ys that a person can end up with. For instance, people can inherit three Xs
or an X and two Ys. These folks are normally taller than average. Those with three Xs have slender builds, and
sometimes have minor learning disorders. The people who have an X and two YYs, on the other
hand, tend to have more acne because of the extra testosterone in their systems. In both
cases, people retain full fertility. Then, there’s Turner syndrome, which happens
when you get just one X. That results in female characteristics, but the people who have it
tend to be shorter, don’t really go through puberty, may have mental disabilities, and
are sterile. And Klinefelter syndrome, which results from
two Xs and a Y, is the most common chromosomal sex anomaly. It happens in one in 600 male births and can
cause lower testosterone production and cause incomplete testicular development, though
the symptoms can be minor enough that a person isn’t diagnosed until later in life. Now there’s also the fact that all your
cells in your body don’t necessarily have the same chromosomal makeup. Which like, what?
Did I learn nothing but lies in high school? But it’s true—someone with mosaicism can
develop from a single fertilized egg, but have a patchwork of genetically different
cells. And someone who’s a genetic chimera has
different cells because they develop from two different fertilized eggs that merge in
the womb. In both cases, it’s possible to end up with
a mix of cells with different sex chromosomes. And depending on the distribution of those
cells, mosaicism and chimaerism can result in ambiguous sexual characteristics or both
male and female reproductive body parts. It’s even been shown that pregnant people
and their fetuses frequently swap stem cells through the placenta in a phenomenon known
as microchimerism. That means a chromosomal “female” can be carrying around XY cells,
and her son can have XX ones. In some studies, these cells have been shown
to stick around in the mother for several decades. But all that said… there are also plenty
of people with double-X or XY chromosomes that also have differences of sexual development. That’s in part because at least 25 genes
play a role in sex differentiation. So both mutations and relocations of these genes can
result in a range of differences. Genes necessary for male development can be
swapped onto the X chromosome, for example, or someone can end up with multiple or mutated
versions of other sex-determining genes. And some of these are on other chromosomes,
and are inherited as run-of-the-mill recessive traits. All of these genes really start to be influential
around six weeks of development. You see, at six weeks, the fetus has a pair
of bulges called the gonadal ridges next to its kidneys—and they have the potential
to develop into ovaries or testes. The fetus at this point also has two sets
of ducts. One set can develop into the uterus and fallopian tubes, while the other set has
the potential to become the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles. And what happens from there is somewhat of
a balancing act of different genes working in concert. Essentially, different networks of genes shout
MALE and FEMALE, and when that balance gets knocked slightly askew, it can move a person
along the sex spectrum. Take SRY. Discovered in the 1990s, this is
the male programming gene, and it has a big effect on development. If it ends up on the chromosome of someone
who is XX, it can cause them to develop testes instead of ovaries. This can happen because there’s a step in
sperm and egg production when chromosomes swap some DNA with their partner chromosomes. And even though the X and Y chromosomes generally
don’t join in on this DNA swapping process, they sometimes do. Plus, other mutations that occur during the
production of gametes can result in multiple or mutated versions of SRY or other sex-determining
genes—because it’s not the only gene that matters. There are also genes that actively encourage
the fetus to develop female characteristics. For instance, the gene WNT4 suppresses testicular
development and promotes ovarian development, and multiple copies of it can cause incomplete
female gonads to develop in people who are XY. Gonad development also triggers the production
of sex-specific hormones, which results in further sex-specific development. But some people have differences of sex differentiation
that limit their ability to respond to those hormones. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is
one of these. People who have it are unaffected by male sex hormones, because they have some
kind of mutation to the protein that these hormones bind to, called the Androgen Receptor. And that means that while they have testes
and a Y chromosome, their exterior genitals appear female or in between. There’s also congenital adrenal hyperplasia,
the most common DSD out there. That’s when the adrenal glands underproduce
cortisol and overproduce androgens, the male hormone group that includes testosterone. The underproduction of cortisol can lead to
health problems, while the overproduction of androgens can lead to external male genitalia
paired with internal female gonads in people with XX chromosomes. Some of these conditions don’t fully present
themselves until puberty or later. In fact, some aren’t realized at all until
a person seeks some kind of medical care that reveals them. Like, in 2014, doctors reported
one case of a 70-year-old father of 4 whose quote “hernia” turned out to be a uterus
with fallopian tubes. But, in many cases, differences in sexual
development are notable from birth; for those newborns, it may be possible to assign a gender
based on what they are more likely to identify as, as they grow up. The thing is, with all of the things that
can happen during sexual development, when a child is born with an obvious difference
of sex development, it’s not always clear why. Looking at chromosomes often isn’t enough,
and sometimes a hormonal test isn’t either. And even if the child’s doctors have a sense
of what’s going on, determining what, if any, treatment is necessary can be challenging. Back in the 1960s, it was thought that growing
up without clearly defined sexual organs would cause emotional trauma. So, there was a push
towards performing surgery on infants to clearly assign them a sex. And because of social stigmas surrounding
DSDs, parents were often encouraged to keep all this a secret, even from the child. So
people grew up without knowing kind of important details about their own bodies. It’s hard to get numbers on how many of
these surgeries were—or even are being—performed. It’s also hard to know exactly how these
surgeries affect patients, but as adults, many report pain, scarring, and a loss of
sensation. Also, people with DSDs do report high rates
of gender dysphoria, where their chosen gender does not align with their assigned sex. And there is an association between gender
dysphoria and mental health issues, like self-harm behaviors, so these surgeries may contribute
to mental health problems later in life. Though, it’s important to note that such
issues are less likely if people have supportive and affirming parents who accept them as they
are. And, sometimes, surgery is medically necessary,
like to unblock the urethra. Also, surgery can help to preserve fertility
or, in the case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, to reduce the risk of testicular
cancer. But from a medical perspective, those surgeries
don’t need to be performed on infants. In fact, most of the time, differences in
genital anatomy at birth aren’t something that needs to be fixed. At least, not until
the person is old enough to make their own choices about what they want their bodies
to look like. So nowadays, healthcare is moving away from
a surgical approach. If a DSD is identified at birth, treatment is more likely to include
therapy and hormonal replacement than surgery. Often, a DSD team is involved in care, which
can include geneticists, endocrinologists, and psychologists or psychiatrists. They help the family decide if any interventions
are immediately and medically necessary, and help provide care and support to the child
with DSD and their family throughout childhood. Unfortunately, this kind of care still isn’t
available everywhere. For now, researchers are working to better
understand the development of both sex and gender over time, and to gain a clearer sense
of when kids begin to understand their own gender identity. The problem, of course, is the fact that from
clothes to restrooms to organized sports, they are raised in a society that is set up
around a binary that just… isn’t binary. But researchers are thinking about how we
can make our overall discussions and understanding of sex even more inclusive—and more accurate. Because even though biological sex may seem
like one of those things that is relatively straightforward in a very, very complicated
world… it’s not! And while there’s probably still a long
way to go to understand it, we are making progress. Before we go, we’d like to give a special
thank you to our patrons on Patreon. It’s because of their support that we’re able
to tackle complex, difficult topics like this one. So thank you, patrons! And if you want
to support us, too, you can learn more by joining our patron community at Patreon.com/SciShow [♪ OUTRO]

100 thoughts on “There Are More Than Two Human Sexes

  1. Gender Roles (or "gender" as certain people are calling them now) are largely arbitrary to begin with. People making up gender roles just so they can claim a pronoun should NOT be taken seriously by ANYONE explicitly not anyone claiming to be a SCIENTIFIC authority.

  2. After watching this video I am now convinced that there are two genders and there is a number of genetical disorders that you are just trying to normalize, which is weird.

  3. I like the idea of DSD's being an accepted and used term. However, I am still going to have to disagree with the idea that sex is a spectrum. Reproduction is a relatively straightforward process that involves 2 partners coming together. It is from that 2 that we get the very simple idea of sex being BInary. If reproduction was a joint effort where a group of people got together and boom, baby, than there would be an argument. DSD's existing however, is perfectly reasonable. But these things are not normal, even at 2%. They are genetic abnormalities (again even at 2%) and ultimately result in a life with more complications. It does not, however, mean that the sex is different. Yes, biology can be complicated and there are many things that go into proper human development… But the intended nature of… well nature, hasn't changed. Gender identity in and of itself is a problem. Culture should let people be however it is they feel like they want to be without needing to fit into a box or description. I think it is a shame that being a sex, male or female, comes pre-equipped with a rule-book of how it is you are supposed to be, and that gender identity even exists as a topic at all. But disagreeing with the rule-books given out shouldn't mean trying to fit into the rule-book not given at birth… the entire idea of gender-identity comes from too much expectations and stereotyping. But as far as the Sex of an individual goes…. if for 98% of the population it is binary… than, it is binary. for the 2% that have DSD's, well, unfortunately that is just a form a physical retardation. I am not saying those terms in a slanderous way, and I am not trying to offend anyone. It's just how it is. These are physical abnormalities that lead to difficulties in life. In some case (such as the cases with extra chromosomes) the people are sterile and unable to reproduce at all In some of the other case, blessed be, the retardation is incredibly mild and mostly unnoticeable which allows the person to live a normal life. Then there are the cases that have a severe toll on a persons mental well-being and result in many, many challenges in life. But to try change the intentions of nature and take something that very obviously occurs between TWO people and claim it to not be BInary is ridiculous. This is just society being far too incapable of speaking the truth to a large number of people. Some people have DSD's… OK. Good. Lets work with those people to help them live enjoyable lives. But let us also acknowledge that DSD's are a disorder. They just happen to be far more common than a child born without limbs. We don't go off assuming that 2 armed people isn't a thing anymore because a percentage of the population is born with a different number of arms. We don't redefine the way all of our doors and utensils are set up for these people, we help those people shape to the larger percentage of society… DSD's, existing at 2% should definitely be acknowledged as a thing. People with DSD's should be helped and had compassion for, absolutely. But to act as though these things are "normal" is just absurd. 2% is nowhere close to normal. 50% is normal. 2% is an outlier. Sex IS binary, or at least reproduction is (scientific interference not included).

  4. This is not a video on more than 2 sexes, it is a video about defective chromosomes that are considered a disorder. There are 2 sexes.

  5. If the people that don't have the normal physiological characteristics of the binary definition of male or female and they have physiological or mental disadvantages, wouldn't that make it just a disorder? It's unreasonable to call it spectrum if the people in the spectrum have characteristics that display drawbacks in comparison to binary people.

  6. Most of the people in this comment section are assuming that 11,000/26,000 people disliked this video without watching it at all because they’re some crazy right winged individuals. Meanwhile, I find it very hard to believe that many conservatives are watching SciShow in the first place… so where are these 11,000 dislikes really coming from?

  7. It's the great complexity of things as seemingly simple as sex that made me want to become a biologist. Please, do not be close-minded about areas of science you are probably not familiar with, especially when it's well-intentioned people that are talking to you.

  8. While there might by technicality be more than two sexes, they are (because of their rarity and lack of biological function) unintentional abnormalities. Male and female serve a purpose biologically speaking and that is why they persist. I don't recall you dictating whether any of the other sexes served any purpose genetically/biologically. Just as somebody with Tourette's is just as much of a person as anybody else but their abnormality is classified as that, so should these other sexes.
    I guess the argument could be made that Tourette's should be considered a personality type just as you are arguing here.

  9. I was VERY skeptical of this video title when I saw it, a lot of trepidation… Even if I think of the 'in between' of the two genders being a disorder, and not a 'true gender', that's fine. It wasn't too-heavily influenced by dogmatic nonsense… and the disambiguation towards the start was an important touch, sadly-so in 2019.

    While I disagree with their conclusions, which I must say this channel normally avoids when it comes to such 'questionable' edges of science, it wasn't a bad video over-all.

  10. Ooo…this topic. Also, quite a good vid, mayhaps the trolls will be satisfied with this one?
    Anyhow, thanks, this was pretty informative

  11. DSD?!! Really, those social “scientists” couldn’t speak Greek or Latin anymore 😉 try guys, please, just try to make your subjects sound more sophisticated than it is, or are you guys truly aiming for that 50 percentile audience that struggles with passing female studies xD

  12. To all the reactionaries saying that only 1-2% of people being intersex/having DSDs means that they are the exception and not the rule: only 1-2% of the human population has red hair. Yet nobody denies that it’s a legitimate hair color that humans have.
    Sex is a spectrum.

  13. Admittedly I need to do more research, but right now I'm unconvinced that sex isn't binary with a few exceptions.

    This video does a really good job of showing the variations that humans can have. However, all the examples of how sex could be a spectrum given are disorders/ syndromes that the majority of the population won't have. As the video says, 2% is not statistically significant enough to call sex a spectrum.

  14. Time to rebrand to IdeologyShow.

    We don't say humans have 0-4 limbs because some people are unlucky enough to be born with them or lose them later in life. We also don't say humans have 1-2 heads because Siamese twins exist. This is blatant pandering to ideology. Those examples along with the syndromes listed are birth defects i.e.: where something went wrong and thus the standard layout for the body wasn't the end.

  15. This argument was already smashed when bow tie tv science guy tried to pass any anomaly in chromosomes as the justification and explenation for gender identities other than men and women… It failed to mention it's only a less than 2(and that is lumping in together any single anomaly as minor yet notisable regarding sexual differentiation regardless of chromosomes)%, and that such anomalies in chromosomes mostly represent handicapping mutations, it also implies that all people that identify as other than male or female regarding their respective birth sex must fall into this category, when in fact they do not.

    At any rate, here are some of the fallacies of this video:
    -To say this is new information barely being discovered
    -To claim it is a fault of the education system not to teach us this (when in fact no other anomalies are really taught in school in detail)
    -To try to make this a case for explaining sexual identity and sexual preferences.

    I accept people have a need to identify as one thing or the other, or try to become one thing or the other, and that they have a prefered sexual orientation and prefered identity. I believe in the persue of hapiness per se, and on tolerance, and in that inherent equaility of value as a human being regardless of sex or any biological composition for that matter. But this video is just subtle Feminist backing propaganda with a very dishonest agenda that spews facts not as a scientific effort but as supporting effort in a propaganda scheme, and cares not to avoid fallacious rethoric, on the contrary, the fallacious rethoric is the goal here, with no true apreciation of the scientific method other than as an accessory to the fallacious rethoric.

    I guess it is bow tie tv science guy all over again…

    PS
    Feminism is not true equality, it's not true humanitarian activism either.

  16. Let's be honest 2% is to low to be considered on a test size of the human population find a way to raise your data above 5% to be considered also remove any genetic anomaly from said data organisms main detective is to survive and reproduce if said anomaly hinders either aspect of this it should not be considered within the context of this experiment as for those relating this to things such as hair color eye color or rare blood types as these are caused by recessive genes or genetic isolation from the general population things completely separated from this argument collect data and come back with a complete argument so that several scientists may collect their own data to test as well as check for confirmation bias

  17. Damn. This video is already controversial even though they are just speaking the truth.

    Facts > Feelings

    Conservatives just can't handle reality.

  18. Annoying clickbait title, the statement that sex isn't binary because a small fraction of people are born with slight and often correctable defects to their anatomy is blowing the entire topic way out of proportion. But hey at the end of the day you got a buncha views.

  19. Good thing the "science and reason" fetishists is always open to new ideas and don't instantly brigade anyone telling them that their 2nd grade understanding of biology is wrong.

  20. No this doesn’t make any sense, the science behind this is clear there are only two sexes, and lumping genetic abnormalities as being a reflection of some biological spectrum is absurd.

    It’s completely untrue and if this is the way you are trying to portray and change science so it confirms your belief in social justice it’s nothing short of fascist reinterpretation.

  21. Well, it looks like there's a lot of anti-science bots here today. Either that or they're people that "believe" in something other than the science.

    Just for you people that think that a binary system can have a 2% non-binary exclusionary sect. It can't. In order for something to be confirm through scientific theory as "binary" it needs to be represented through 3, count them, 3 standard deviations of logical outcome. That is 99.7%, per record. Being less than 98% (Which is a massive deviation) means that, statistically, through definitive scientific theory, sex is not binary by definition. Facts over feelings, if you want to "feel" that you're right, that your belief supersedes all statistics and scientific data, then you're still wrong on official record.

  22. So, it's not binary because we use a mix of multiple potentialyl binary definitions and they don't separate into the same two sets? Got it!

  23. You start this video on a false premise, the only real biological distinction is weather or not an organism produces eggs or is typically specialised to do so, there are variations and exception for this but it’s inherently black or white. Male, female, hermaphrodite…that’s pretty much it as far as biology is concerned…..

  24. 1) Male
    2) Female
    3) Male variation
    4) Female variation

    Sure, if you want to play unnecessary technicalities we could say there's a spectrum of male and female variation. But you can't escape the context of male and female.

  25. Ohh i am sure the "sceptic" community will definetely have a rational discussion and will surely make up their mind alongside scientific consensus

  26. I like how most of the people who dislikee this video used all of their brain power understanding the title, and now we don't see them in the comments.

  27. Only males and females can have babies together, having chromosomal abnormalities is not a 3rd or 4th sex, its' a defect, and it's rare. Being born with an extra limb or even an extra head does not make you a new species of human, it's just a defect. There are still only 2 sexes.

  28. Skin colour, hair type, eyes, are a spectrum there's variation and lots inbetween. 2% of people may be on a spectrum but that's only 2% of people. I don't think this would explain the number of "nonbinary" people that seem to mainly group in the socioeconomic and demographics of white middle class white females in the western world.

  29. Im going to have to say that since those people don't make up a significant part of the population and even within this video are referred to as anomalies I don't think it warrants a whole new sex clarification

  30. I realized as a teen that our society, or many states with old fashion ignorant adults running things, have deliberately moved to keep younger people ignorant about sex, sex education, biology, etc. Montana being one of those states. When you're 15 and two of your older friends (19-20 years old) come to you for help since they're terrified. They thought she was going to get pregnant because he ejaculated on the outside of her underwear. No joke.

    Given the like/disklike ratio, I can only surmise that a lot of trolls jumped in to attack or a lot of SciShow followers were triggered hearing about a part of human biology that they don't like or wasn't spoken about exactly the way they would want. Because.. Maybe they see science as something based on their personal feelings? I don't know. There's conservative websites and channels you can go to if the science is too much ya know. =P

  31. Are we sure children should be medically treated for any 'disorders' anymore?
    Because the 'disorder' could be just a 'difference' and the child might be part of a 'spectrum' of physical/physiological/mental states.
    Isn't health a social construct?

  32. This is why religious people are idiots. If god created us, mistakes shouldn't happen. Although these aren't mistakes, they are just things that make us unique.

  33. Oh boy! This one is a doozey. Hank in this video is absolutely correct when he describes the natural variance in human phenotype as it relates to sexual organs and how this is connected to certain hormonal as well as genetic derivations. Derived is the key word in this. When describing these features they range from one sex to the other. DSD does not a new sex make, they are atypical and certainly worthy of recognition. Hell how a certain sex is supposed to look differs from species to species and is completely malliable and subject to natural variance and evolutionary pressures I.E. There is no "incorrect" way of phenotyping. But for a third sex you do need a bit more than deriving from either male or female. Sex is a function of a reproductive strategy called "Sexual reproduction" In which the germline cells of one individual need to combine with those of a compatable other individual to produce offspring. In our world this is done by those who produce oocytes and those who produce spermatozoids Nematodes being a notable exception as they have females and hermafrodites capable of self fertilization. In order to get a new Sex you would have to find evidence of an independant third type of germline cell compatible with one or both existing types, this is something that does not exist in our species. While i whole heartedly agree that people who have DSD are completely valid in their experiences as people it doesn't mean that they are of an unknown sex or that there are more than two sexes. Sexual phenotype exists on a spectrum where occurance is a bimodal distribution with peaks on the typical sexual phenotype and a troth inbetween. The message of this video is not to forget the people that fall in this troth and are nowhere near as numerous as those at the peak. A fantastic message but the title let this video down and i cannot help but think that it is pandering to and enabling people who would eschew science for their personal social or political agendas and while i agree with the message in the video itself the framing of it has lead me to vote down this video. Sorry Hank.

  34. None of what was described qualifies as a third sex. You're describing two sexes and defects/mutations that leave people somewhere between the two functioning sexes that procreate the species. Facts don't care about your feelings.

  35. I still don't see a problem with saying 98% of people are mostly either biologically Male or female. And 2% are a mutation of chromosomes and hormones that can create a combination of sex anatomy. These instances are variations of being intersex or differences of sexual development. There's literally dozens of different ways someone can develope as intersex which is where a spectrum of sexes can occur and instance needs to be dealt with on a case by case basis under medical supervision. Biological sex is mostly a binary and that's okay.

  36. It’s a very misleading title. Some scientists are leaning towards a spectrum, meaning it’s not confirmed. Then you start talking about minor cases and mutations like it’s normal. It’s like saying humans don’t have 8 fingers and 2 thumbs because some people have more/less.

    Also if we’re able to categorise each mutation, then is it a spectrum?

  37. OMG… really. INTERSEX DOES NOT NEGATE THE DiMORPHISM OF THE HUMAN SPECIES! YOU FINALLY WENT FULL WOKE DIDN'T YOU YOU IDIOTS… Man I used to love this show but the last year or so… goddamn the science has become POLITICAL science. I guess somebody needs to give those useless degrees a job.

  38. These are ALL the sexes:

    1) Male
    2) Female
    3) Male variation
    4) Female variation

    Sure, if you want to play unnecessary technicalities we could say there's a spectrum of male and female variation. But you can't escape the binary context of male and female.

    You're welcome.

  39. Yeah no. Let's not count genetic mutations and abnormalities as "Different genders". Should we consider other birth defects the norm of human development?

  40. Anyone else wish there was more that two buttons to rate this video.
    Like / dislike seems not to cover all the ways I might feel about this video..

  41. What you are speaking about are abnormalities, a deviations from the normal development. Physical conditions must be treated not justified as normal.

  42. In the end, there are still only two sexes, or genders. You could be a spectrum of either one, but in the end, there is still only 2.

  43. "biological sex is a spectrum" is like saying "sometimes when you flip a coin, it lands on its edge".

    I mean, cool fact and all, but you're talking about statistical anomalies. (And ones that are often catastrophic for the individuals affected)

  44. There are males and females. Not that hard to explain. Any deviation from that would be a hermaphrodite or somebody with a mental illness.

  45. Should this treated as a spectrum or a set of anomalies?
    People are sometimes born with extra fingers; does this mean finger number is a spectrum rather than just 10 fingers?
    Not hating in any way I'm just curious

  46. Reproductive sex – aka sex that functions correctly to reproduce – is not a spectrum. Sorry, we're a reproductive organism. Sexual dimorphism is part of that biology.

  47. 2% huh? Then why do your diagrams show it like, 80%? I don't know how bad the US educational system is, but everyone knows about intersex in Europe. This video isn't wrong, in any particular, but it obviously champions a world view that goes beyond what science actually proves.

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